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tours Adelaide - August 2008
is the capital and most populous city of the Australian
state of South
Australia, and is the fifth-largest city in Australia,
with a population of over 1.1 million in 2006. It
is a coastal city situated on eastern side of Gulf
St. Vincent on the Adelaide Plains, north of the Fleurieu
Peninsula, and west of the Mount Lofty Ranges, which
rise to around 700 metres (2,300 ft).
in honour of Queen Adelaide, the consort of King William
IV, the city was founded in 1836 as the planned capital
for the only freely-settled British province in Australia.
Colonel William Light, one of Adelaide's founding
fathers, is said to have designed the city and to
have chosen its location close to the River Torrens.
Inspired by William Penn, Light's design set out Adelaide
in a grid layout, interspaced by wide boulevards and
large public squares, and entirely surrounded by parkland.
Early Adelaide was shaped by religious freedom, hence
its moniker "The City of Churches," as well
as a commitment to civil liberties. Today Adelaide
is known for its many festivals as well as for its
wine, arts and sports.
South Australia's seat of government and commercial
centre, Adelaide is the site of many governmental
and financial institutions. Most of these are concentrated
in the city centre along the cultural boulevard of
North Terrace, King William Street and in various
districts of the metropolitan area.
to British settlement, the Adelaide area was inhabited
by the Kaurna Aboriginal
tribe (pronounced "Garner" or "Gowna").
Acknowledged Kaurna country comprised the Adelaide
Plains and surrounding regions - from Cape Jervis
in the south, and to Port Wakefield in the north.
Among their unique customs were burn-offs (controlled
bushfires) in the Adelaide Hills which the early Europeans
spotted before the Kaurna people were pushed out by
settlement. By 1852, the total population (by census
count) of the Kaurna was 650 in the Adelaide region
and steadily decreasing. During the winter months,
they moved into the Adelaide Hills for better shelter
Australia was officially settled as a new British
province on 28 December 1836, near the The Old Gum
Tree in what is now the suburb of Glenelg North. This
day is now commemorated as Proclamation Day in South
Australia. The site of the colony's capital city was
surveyed and laid out by Colonel William Light, the
first Surveyor-General of South Australia, though
the design may be by the architect George Strickland
Kingston . In 1823, Light had fondly written of the
Sicilian city of Catania: "The two principal
streets cross each other at right angles in the square
in the direction of north and south and east and west.
They are wide and spacious and about a mile long",
and this became the basis for the plan of Adelaide.
Light chose, not without opposition, a site on rising
ground close to the River Torrens, which became the
chief early water supply for the fledgling colony.
"Light's Vision", as it has been termed,
has meant that the initial design of Adelaide required
little modification as the city grew and prospered.
Usually in an older city it would be necessary to
accommodate larger roads and add parks, whereas Adelaide
had them from the start. Adelaide was established
as the centre of a planned colony of free immigrants,
promising civil liberties and freedom from religious
persecution, based upon the ideas of Edward Gibbon
Wakefield. Wakefield had read accounts of Australian
settlement while in prison in London for attempting
to abduct an heiress, and realised that the eastern
colonies suffered from a lack of available labour,
due to the practice of giving land grants to all arrivals.
Wakefield's idea was for the Government to survey
and sell the land at a rate that would maintain land
values high enough to be unaffordable for labourers
and journeymen. Funds raised from the sale of land
would be used to bring out working class emigrants,
who would have to work hard for the monied settlers
to ever afford their own land. As a result of this
policy, Adelaide does not share the convict settlement
history of other Australian cities like Sydney, Perth,
Brisbane and Hobart.
early history was wrought by economic uncertainty
and incompetent leadership. The first governor of
South Australia, John Hindmarsh, clashed frequently
with Light. The rural area surrounding Adelaide city
was surveyed by Light in preparation to sell a total
of over 405 km² of land. Adelaide's early economy
started to get on its feet in 1838 with the arrival
of livestock from New South Wales and Tasmania. The
wool industry served as an early basis for the South
Australian economy. Light's survey was completed in
this period, and land was promptly offered to sale
to early colonists. Wheat farms ranged from Encounter
Bay in the south to Clare in the north by 1860. Governor
Gawler took over from Hindmarsh in late 1838 and promptly
oversaw construction of a governor's house, Adelaide
Gaol, police barracks, hospital, and customs house
and a wharf at Port Adelaide. In addition, houses
for public officials and missionaries, and outstations
for police and surveyors were also constructed during
Gawler's governorship. Adelaide had also become economically
self-sufficient during this period, but at heavy cost:
the colony was heavily in debt and relied on bail-outs
from London to stay afloat. Gawler was recalled and
replaced by Governor Grey in 1841. Grey slashed public
expenditure against heavy opposition, although its
impact was negligible at this point: silver was discovered
in Glen Osmond that year, agricultural industries
were well underway, and other mines sprung up all
over the state, aiding Adelaide's commercial development.
The city exported meat, wool, wine, fruit and wheat
by the time Grey left in 1845, contrasting with a
low point in 1842 when one-third of Adelaide houses
links with the rest of the Australian states were
established with the Murray River being successfully
navigated in 1853 by Francis Cadell, an Adelaide resident.
Australia become a self-governing colony in 1856 with
the ratification of a new constitution by the British
parliament. Secret ballots were introduced, and a
bicameral parliament was elected on 9 March 1857,
by which time 109,917 people lived in the province.
1860 the Thorndon Park reservoir was opened, finally
providing an alternative water source to the turbid
River Torrens. In 1867 gas street lighting was implemented,
the University of Adelaide was founded in 1874, the
South Australian Art Gallery opened in 1881 and the
Happy Valley Reservoir opened in 1896. In the 1890s
Australia was affected by a severe economic depression,
ending a hectic era of land booms and tumultuous expansionism.
Financial institutions in Melbourne and banks in Sydney
closed. The national fertility rate fell and immigration
was reduced to a trickle. The value of South Australia's
exports nearly halved. Drought and poor harvests from
1884 compounded the problems, with some families leaving
for Western Australia. Adelaide was not as badly hit
as the larger gold-rush cities of Sydney and Melbourne,
and silver and lead discoveries at Broken Hill provided
some relief. Only one year of deficit was recorded,
but the price paid was retrenchments and lean public
spending. Wine and copper were the only industries
not to suffer a downturn.
street lighting was introduced in 1900 and electric
trams were transporting passengers in 1909. 28,000
men were sent to fight in World War I. Adelaide enjoyed
a post-war boom but, with the return of droughts,
entered the depression of the 1930s, later returning
to prosperity under strong government leadership.
Secondary industries helped reduce the state's dependence
on primary industries. The 1933 census recorded the
state population at 580,949, less of an increase than
other states due to the state's economic limitations.
World War II brought industrial stimulus and diversification
to Adelaide under the Playford Government, which advocated
Adelaide as a safe place for manufacturing due to
its less vulnerable location. 70,000 men and women
enlisted and shipbuilding was expanded at the nearby
port of Whyalla.
South Australian Government in this period built on
former wartime manufacturing industries. International
manufacturers like General Motors Holden and Chrysler
(now Mitsubishi) make use of these factories around
Adelaide completing its transformation from an agricultural
service centre to a twentieth-century city. A pipeline
from Mannum brought River Murray water to Adelaide
in 1954 and an international airport opened at West
Beach in 1955. An assisted migration scheme brought
215,000 immigrants of all nationalities to South Australia
between 1947 and 1973. The Dunstan Government in the
1970s saw something of an Adelaide 'cultural revival'
- establishing a wide array of social reforms and
overseeing the city becoming a centre of the arts.
Adelaide hosted the Australian
Grand Prix between 1985 and 1996 on a street circuit
in the city's east parklands, before losing it to
The 1992 State Bank collapse plunged both Adelaide
and South Australia into economic recession, and its
effects lasted until 2004, when ratings agency Standard
& Poor's reinstated South Australia's AAA credit
rating. Recent years have seen the Clipsal 500 V8
Supercar race make use of sections of the former
Formula One circuit and renewed economic confidence
under the Rann Government.
is located north of the Fleurieu Peninsula, on the
Adelaide Plains between the Gulf St Vincent and the
low-lying Mount Lofty Ranges. The city stretches 20
km from the coast to the foothills, and 90 km from
Gawler at its northern extent to Sellicks Beach in
the south. According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics,
the Adelaide Metropolitan Region has a total land
area of 870 km², and is at an average elevation
of 50 metres above sea level. Mount Lofty is located
east of the Adelaide metropolitan region in the Adelaide
Hills at an elevation of 727 metres. It is the tallest
point of the city and in the state south of Burra.
of Adelaide was bushland before British settlement,
with some variation - swamps and marshlands were prevalent
around the coast. However, much of the original vegetation
has been cleared with what is left to be found in
reserves such as the Cleland Conservation Park and
Belair National Park. A number of creeks and rivers
flow through the Adelaide region. The largest are
the Torrens and Onkaparinga catchments. Adelaide relies
on its many reservoirs for water supply, with Mount
Bold Reservoir and Happy Valley Reservoir together
supplying around 50% of Adelaide's requirements.
Climate of Adelaide
has a Mediterranean climate, where most of the rain
falls in the winter months. Of the Australian capital
cities, Adelaide is the driest. Rainfall is unreliable,
light and infrequent throughout summer. In contrast,
the winter has fairly reliable rainfall with June
being the wettest month of the year, averaging around
80 mm. Frosts are rare, with the most notable occurrences
having occurred in July 1908 and July 1982. There
is usually no appreciable snowfall, except at Mount
Lofty and some places in the Adelaide Hills.
is a planned city, designed by the first surveyor-general
of South Australia, Colonel William Light. His plan,
now known as Light's Vision, arranged Adelaide in
a grid, with five squares in the inner City of Adelaide
and a ring of parks known as the Adelaide Parklands
surrounding it. Light's design was initially unpopular
with the early settlers, as well as South Australia's
first Governor, John Hindmarsh. Light persisted with
his design against this initial opposition. The benefits
of Light's design are numerous; Adelaide has had wide
multi-lane roads from its beginning, an easily-navigable
grid layout and a beautiful green ring around the
city centre. There are two sets of 'ring roads' in
Adelaide that have resulted from the original design.
The inner ring route borders the parklands and the
outer route completely bypasses the inner city through
(in clockwise order) Grand Junction Road, Hampstead
Road, Ascot Avenue, Portrush Road, Cross Road and
expansion has to some extent outgrown Light's original
plan. Numerous satellite cities were built in the
latter half of the 20th century, notably Salisbury
and Elizabeth on the city's northern fringes, which
have now been enveloped by its urban sprawl. New developments
in the Adelaide Hills region facilitated the construction
of the South Eastern Freeway to cope with growth.
Similarly, the booming development in Adelaide's South
made the construction of the Southern Expressway a
necessity. New roads are not the only transport infrastructure
developed to cope with the urban growth, however.
The O-Bahn Busway is an example of a unique solution
to Tea Tree Gully's transport woes in the 1980s. The
development of the nearby suburb of Golden Grove in
the late 1980s is possibly an example of well-thought-out
urban planning. The newer urban areas as a whole,
however, are not as integrated into the urban layout
as much as older areas, and therefore place more stress
on Adelaide's transportation system – although
not on a level comparable with Melbourne or Sydney.
Government of South Australia
Adelaide metropolitan area is divided between eighteen
local government areas, including, at its centre,
the City of Adelaide, which administers the CBD, North
Adelaide, and the surrounding Adelaide Parklands.
It is the oldest municipal authority in Australia
and was established in 1840, when Adelaide and Australia's
first mayor, James Hurtle Fisher, was elected. From
1919 onwards, the City has had a Lord Mayor, the current
being Lord Mayor Michael Harbison.
as the capital of South Australia, is the seat of
the Government of South Australia. As Adelaide is
South Australia's capital and most populous city,
the State Government co-operates extensively with
the City of Adelaide. In 2006, the Ministry for the
City of Adelaide was created to facilitate the state
government's collaboration with the Adelaide City
Council and the Lord Mayor to improve Adelaide's image.
The state parliament's Capital City Committee is also
involved in the governance of the City of Adelaide,
being primarily concerned with the planning of Adelaide's
urban development and growth.
of 2006 Census, Adelaide had a metropolitan population
of more than 1,105,839, making it Australia's fifth
largest city. In the 2002-2003 period the population
grew by 0.6%, while the national average was 1.2%.
Some 70.3% of the population of South Australia are
residents of the Adelaide metropolitan area, making
South Australia one of the most centralised states.
Major areas of population growth in recent years were
in outer suburbs such as Mawson Lakes and Golden Grove.
Adelaide's inhabitants occupy 341,227 houses, 54,826
semi-detached, row terrace or town houses and 49,327
flats, units or apartments.
of high-income are concentrated on the coastal suburbs
(such as Brighton and Glenelg), eastern suburbs (such
as Tusmore and Norwood) and south-eastern suburbs
(such as Burnside and Waterfall Gully). Almost a fifth
(17.9%) of the population had university qualifications.
The number of Adelaideans with vocational qualifications
(such as tradespersons) fell from 62.1% of the labour
force in the 1991 census to 52.4% in the 2001 census.
half of the population identifies as Christian, with
the largest denominations being Catholic (22.1%),
Anglican (14.0%), Uniting Church (8.4%) and Eastern
Orthodox (3.8%). Approximately 24% of the population
expressed no religious affiliation, well above the
national average of 18.7%.
Adelaide is ageing much more rapidly than other Australian
capital cities. Just over a quarter (26.7%) of Adelaide's
population is aged 55 years or older, in comparison
to the national average of 24.3%. Adelaide has the
lowest number of children (under-15 year olds), which
composed 17.8% of the population, compared to the
national average of 19.8.
Adelaideans composed 23.7% (262,367) of the total
population. The north-western suburbs (such as Woodville
and Athol Park) and suburbs close to the CBD have
a higher ratio of overseas-born residents. The five
largest groups of overseas-born were from England
(7.3%), Italy (1.9%), Scotland (1.0%), Vietnam (0.9%),
and Greece (0.9%). The most-spoken languages other
than English were Italian (3.0%), Greek (2.2%), Vietnamese
(1.2%), Mandarin (0.8%), and Cantonese (0.7%).
economy is primarily based around manufacturing, defence
technology and research, commodity export and corresponding
service industries. It has large manufacturing, defence
and research zones. They contain car manufacturing
plants for General Motors Holden and Mitsubishi, and
plants that produce electronic systems that are sold
worldwide for applications in medical, communications,
defence, automotive, food and wine processing and
industrial sectors. The revenue of Adelaide's electronics
industry has grown at over 15% per year since 1990.
The electronics industry in Adelaide employs over
13,000 people, which is more than the automotive industry.
Almost half of all cars produced in Australia are
made in Adelaide. The global media conglomerate News
Corporation was founded in and until 2004 incorporated
in Adelaide and is still considered its 'spiritual'
home by Rupert
Murdoch. Australia's largest oil company, Santos
(South Australia Northern Territory Oil Search), prominent
South Australian brewery, Coopers, major national
retailer Harris Scarfe and Australia's second largest
listed investment company Argo Investments Limited
call Adelaide their home. The collapse of the State
Bank in 1992 resulted in large levels of state debt
(as much as A$4 billion). The collapse had meant that
successive governments had enacted lean budgets, cutting
spending, which had been a setback to the further
development of the city and state. The debt has recently
been reduced with the State Government once again
receiving a AAA+ Credit Rating. The South Australian
economy, very closely tied to Adelaide's, still enjoys
a trade surplus and has higher per capita growth than
Australia as a whole.
is home to a large proportion of Australia's defence
industries which contribute over AU$1 billion to South
Australia's Gross State Product. 70% of Australian
defence companies are located in Adelaide. The principal
government military research institution, the Defence
Science and Technology Organisation, and other defence
technology organisations such as Tenix are located
in Salisbury near RAAF Base Edinburgh and others such
as Saab Systems near Technology Park. The Australian
Submarine Corporation, based in the industrial suburb
of Osborne was charged with constructing Australia's
Collins class submarines and recently won a AU$6 billion
contract to construct the Royal Australian Navy's
new air-warfare destroyers.
are 466,829 employed people in Adelaide, with 62.3%
full-time and 35.1% part-time. In recent years there
has been a growing trend towards part-time (which
includes casual) employment, increasing from only
11.6% of the workplace in 1991, to over a third today.
15% of workers are employed in manufacturing, 5% in
construction, 15% in retail trade, 11% in business
services, 7% in education and 12% in health and community
services. The median weekly individual income for
people aged 15 years and over is $447 per week, compared
with $466 nationally. The median family income is
$1,137 per week,compared with $1,171 nationally. Adelaide's
housing and living costs are substantially lower than
that of other Australian cities, with housing being
notably cheaper. The median Adelaide house price is
half that of Sydney and two-thirds that of Melbourne.
The 3 month trend unemployment rate to March 2007
was 6.2%. The Northern suburbs' unemployment rate
is disproportionately higher than the other regions
of Adelaide at 8.3%, while the East and South are
lower than the Adelaide average at 4.9% and 5.0% respectively.
education in Adelaide is provided by a variety of
public and private schools, which are the responsibility
of the State Government. These schools operate under
the South Australian Certificate of Education (SACE),
or with the International Baccalaureate(IB) Diploma
Programme. Adelaide has the highest number of IB schools
higher education system in Adelaide is extensive,
with five out of eight centres of TAFE South Australia
in the city itself. They specialise in non-university
higher education offering a viable alternative. Adelaide
is home to campuses of all three of South Australia's
universities. The University of Adelaide is a member
of the Group of Eight and is the third-oldest university
in Australia. It has five campuses in the Adelaide
area; one being its primary campus on North Terrace
and another being the National Wine Centre. The University
of South Australia was formed in 1991 from a merger
between the South Australian Institute of Technology
and the South Australian Colleges of Advanced Education.
Four of its five campuses are located in Adelaide,
with two in the city-centre itself. Flinders University,
located in Bedford Park, is named after British navigator
and explorer Matthew Flinders and was founded in 1966.
It is a mid-sized institution with a medical school
at the adjacent Flinders Medical Centre. Leading US
private university Carnegie Mellon established two
Adelaide campuses in 2006 offering both Australian
and US degrees. The Heinz School Australia specialises
in IT and government management and is based in Victoria
Square, while another campus at Light Square specialises
in new media and entertainment. These institutions
attract students from across Australia and around
the world, contributing to Adelaide’s international
recognition as a ‘City of Education’.
SABRENet optical fibre network interconnects Adelaide's
university campuses, technology parks, research precincts,
TAFE colleges and some high schools.
being primarily a British colony, Adelaide attracted
immigrants from many non-English speaking countries
early on, including German Lutherans escaping religious
persecution in Germany.
The first German Lutherans arrived in 1838, bringing
with them the vine cuttings that they used to found
the acclaimed wineries of the Barossa Valley. After
the Second World War, Italians, Greeks, Dutch, Poles,
and possibly every other European nationality came
to make a new start. An influx of Asian immigrants
following the Vietnam War added to the mix. These
new arrivals have blended to form a rich and diverse
cuisine and vibrant restaurant culture.
arts scene flourished in the 1970s under the leadership
of premier Don Dunstan, removing some of the more
puritanical restrictions on cultural activities then
prevalent around Australia. Now the city is home to
events such as the Adelaide Festival of Arts, Fringe
Festival, Adelaide Film Festival, Adelaide Festival
of Ideas, Adelaide Writers' Week, and the Feast Festival
amongst others. WOMADelaide, Australia's premier world
music event, is now annually held in the scenic surrounds
of Botanic Park.
annual Royal Adelaide Show, first held in 1840, began
as a simple event for the state's farmers to show
off their produce. Over time, it grew into a more
general commercial fair held in early September in
the inner suburb of Wayville, with carnival rides,
food and entertainment surrounding the more traditional
agricultural exhibitions and competitions.
music of Adelaide has produced various musicians who
have achieved both national and worldwide fame. Notably
the Adelaide Symphony Orchestra, the Adelaide Youth
Orchestra, The Mark of Cain, The Superjesus, Testeagles,
The Angels, Cold Chisel, and Eric Bogle. American
artist Ben Folds considers Adelaide his second home,
epitomised in his song "Adelaide" and resides
here with his Adelaide-born wife for a number of months
each year. Famous rocker, Jimmy Barnes spent most
of his youth in the northern suburbs of Elizabeth.
The first Australian Idol winner, Guy Sebastian hails
from the Adelaide suburb of Golden Grove. Hardcore
metal band I Killed the Prom Queen also emerged from
Adelaide and the popular Australian hip-hop outfit
Hilltop Hoods come from Blackwood.
in Adelaide are dominated by News
Corporation tabloid publications - Adelaide being
the birthplace of News Corporation itself. The only
South Australian daily newspaper is The Advertiser,
published by News Corporation six days a week, while
the Sunday paper is the Sunday Mail. There are eleven
suburban community newspapers published weekly, known
collectively as the Messenger Newspapers, also published
by a subsidiary of News Corporation. A recent addition
to the print medium in the city is The Independent
Weekly, providing one alternative view. Two national
daily newspapers are circulated in the city: The Australian
(Monday–Friday) and its weekend publication,
The Weekend Australian (Saturday), also published
by News Corporation, and The Australian Financial
Review published by Fairfax. The Adelaide Review is
a free paper published fortnightly, and other independent
magazine-style papers are published, but are not as
of the five Australian national television networks
broadcast both analogue PAL and high definition widescreen
digital services in Adelaide. They share three transmission
towers on the ridge near the summit of Mount Lofty.
The two government-funded stations are ABC
TV and SBS
TV. The Seven
Network and Network
Ten both own their Adelaide stations (SAS-7 and
ADS-10 respectively). Adelaide's NWS-9 is affiliated
with the Nine
Network and was owned by Southern
Cross Broadcasting until the sale to WIN Corporation
in May 2007. Adelaide was also notable for two of
their news services' longest-serving newsreading duos
- at Seven, Jane Doyle and Graeme Goodings presented
together from 1989 to 2003, when Goodings had to quit
because of bowel cancer (John Riddell has since sat
in the weeknight chair with Doyle). At Nine, Rob Kelvin
and Kevin Crease presented together from 1989 to early
2007 when Crease retired and later died. Kelly Nestor
currently sits in the weeknight chair along with Kelvin.
Adelaide also has a community television station,
C31 Adelaide. The Foxtel
pay TV service is available as cable television in
a few areas, and as satellite television to the entire
metropolitan area. It is resold by a number of other
brands, mostly telephone companies.
are twenty radio stations that serve the entire metropolitan
area as well as three community stations that serve
only parts of the metropolitan area. Of the twenty
full coverage stations there are six commercial stations,
six community stations, six national stations and
two narrowcast stations.
main sports are Australian
rules football and cricket Adelaide hosted the
Formula 1 Australian Grand Prix from 1985 to 1995
on a street circuit in the city's eastern parklands.
The Grand Prix became a source of pride and losing
the Grand Prix to Melbourne in a surprise announcement
left a void that has since been filled with the highly
successful Clipsal 500 V8 Supercar race event, held
on a modified version of the same street circuit.
is the home of two Australian Football League teams:
the Adelaide Crows and Port Adelaide Power. A local
Australian rules football league, the SANFL, is made
up of nine teams from around Adelaide.
professional soccer team Adelaide United play in the
A-League, at Hindmarsh Stadium with a capacity of
16,500, one of the few purpose built soccer stadia
in Australia. The club was founded in 2003.
Adelaide 36ers and the Adelaide Lightning play in
national basketball competitions, with home games
at the Distinctive Homes Dome and the Adelaide Thunderbirds
play in the national netball competition, with home
games at ETSA Park. Most large sporting events take
place at either AAMI Stadium (formerly Football Park)
or the historic Adelaide Oval, home of the Southern
Redbacks Cricket Team. Adelaide hosts an international
cricket test every summer, along with a number of
One Day International cricket matches. While Memorial
Drive Park hosts the Adelaide International, a major
mens tennis tournament in the leadup to the Australian
has hosted the annual Tour Down Under bicycle race
since 1999, an event which has gradually built an
international reputation with each successive year
it has been held. It is also host to the popular Bay
to Birdwood run, featuring vintage and veteran cars
from around the world.
first hospital is the Royal Adelaide Hospital (RAH),
founded in 1840, it is one of the major hospitals
in Adelaide and is a teaching hospital of the University
of Adelaide. It has a capacity of 705 beds. Two other
RAH campuses specialising in specific patient services
located in the suburbs of Adelaide - the Hampstead
Rehabilitation Centre in Northfield, and the Glenside
Campus Mental Health Service. The other three largest
hospitals in the Adelaide area are The Women's and
Children's Hospital (305 beds), which is located on
King William Road in North Adelaide; the Queen Elizabeth
Hospital (340 beds), located in Woodville and the
Flinders Medical Centre (500 beds), which is located
in Bedford Park. These hospitals are also associated
with medical schools - the Women and Children's and
Queen Elizabeth with the University of Adelaide and
the Flinders Medical Centre with Flinders University.
June 2007 The State Government announced a series
of overhauls to the health sector that would see a
new hospital constructed to replace the Royal Adelaide
Hospital on the old railyards west of the Adelaide
Railway Station. The new 800 bed hospital will cost
AU$1.7bn, and be controversially renamed the Marjorie
Jackson-Nelson Hospital, after the Governor of South
addition to these changes, major upgrades would see
the Flinders Medical Centre become the primary centre
for health care in the southern suburbs while upgrades
for the Lyell McEwin Health Service in Elizabeth would
see that become the centre for the north. While the
trio of the Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Modbury Hospital
and Noarlunga Hospital would become specialist elective
surgery centres. The Repatriation General Hospital
would also expand its range of specialty areas beyond
veterans' health to incorporate stroke, orthopaedic
rehabilitation and aged care.
centrally located on the Australian mainland, Adelaide
forms a strategic transport hub for east-west and
north-south routes. The city itself has a limited
public transport system, which is managed by and known
as the Adelaide Metro. The Adelaide Metro consists
of a contracted bus system including the O-Bahn Busway,
metropolitan railways, and the Adelaide-Glenelg Tram,
which has also now been extended as a metropolitan
tram through the city center. Road transport in Adelaide
has historically been comparatively easier than many
of the other Australian cities, with a well-defined
city layout and wide multiple-lane roads from the
beginning of its development. Historically, Adelaide
was known as a "twenty-minute city", with
commuters having being able to travel from metropolitan
outskirts to the city proper in roughly twenty minutes.
However, these roads are now inadequate to cope with
Adelaide's growing road traffic.
has one freeway, the South Eastern Freeway, connecting
the city with the Adelaide Hills and beyond to Murray
Bridge and two expressways; the Port River Expressway
connecting Port Adelaide and Outer Harbor to interstate
routes and the Southern Expressway, an interchangeable
one-way road connecting the southern suburbs with
the city proper. The Gawler Bypass skirting Gawler
is another expressway style, high speed inter-urban
corridor. A third expressway, the Northern Expressway
(formerly the Sturt Highway extension), a northern
suburbs bypass route, connecting the Gawler Bypass
to Port Wakefield Road, is due to start construction
in 2008. There are also plans for major upgrades to
busy sections of South Road, Adelaide, including road
widening and underpasses of Anzac Highway, Grange
Road, Port Road and the Outer Harbour Railway Line,
during the first stage.
International Airport, located in Adelaide's west,
is Australia's newest and most advanced airport terminal
and is designed to serve in excess of 5.8 million
passengers annually. The new dual international/domestic
terminal replaces the old and ageing terminals known
locally as the 'tin sheds', and incorporates new state-of-the-art
features, such as glass aerobridges and the ability
to cater for the new Airbus A380. The airport is designed
to handle 27 aircraft simultaneously and is capable
of processing 3,000 passengers per hour. Unusual for
a major city, it is located only about seven kilometres
from the CBD.
energy requirements are met by a variety of companies
who separately provide for the generation, transmission,
distribution and retail sales of gas and electricity.
Some of the major companies are: TRUenergy generate
electricity; ElectraNet SA transmit electricity from
the generators to the distribution network; ETSA Utilities
(formerly a government-owned company which was privatised
by the Olsen Government in the 1990s) distribute electricity
from transmission companies to end users; and AGL
who retail gas and electricity. Substantial investment
has been made in maintenance and reinforcement of
the electricity supply network to provide continued
reliability of supply.
derives most of its electricity from a gas-fired plant
operated by TRUenergy at Torrens Island, and also
by power stations at Port Augusta, Pelican Point,
and connections to the national grid. Gas is mainly
supplied from the Moomba Gas Processing Plant in the
Cooper Basin, and is piped to Adelaide and other areas
within the state. A small part of supply also comes
from wind turbines at Sellicks Hill, and a trial of
more turbines on city buildings is underway.
water supply is gained from its reservoirs: Mount
Bold, Happy Valley, Myponga, Millbrook, Hope Valley,
Little Para and South Para Reservoir. Further water
demands result in the pumping of water from the River
Murray. The provision of water services is by the
government-owned SA Water. (Credit:
Now (News Limited)
casino glamour came to Adelaide, by Brad Crouch -
2nd May 2009
was the night of nights in Adelaide - every man thought
he was James Bond, every woman a princess - and a
fortune was won and lost. Mostly lost.
opening of the Adelaide Casino at 9pm on December
12, 1985, was about the biggest thing to hit Adelaide
since the Buffalo.
years after the Labor government under John Bannon
passed the Casino Bill, the doors to the money pit
flowed some 3000 people, packing the former city railway
station - the men resplendent in dinner suits, the
women glamorous in ballgowns.
Bannon strode into the two-up pit, took the kip, flipped
two Australian pennies and with the prophetic cry
"Come in spinner" unleashed gambling on
a previously staid state.
of casino licence holder AITCO, Ian Weiss, had promised
the casino would be "the most elegant venue of
its type in Australia".
will be styled along the lines of traditional European
casinos as distinct from the Las Vegas mood other
casinos in this country have agreed to match,"
he said at the time.
will be housed in a building with a fine architectural
style, and the decor will be both elegant and opulent."
so it was. The elegance and opulence were undeniable.
The grand railway station had been redeveloped - at
a cost of $25 million - into a setting worthy of Mr
grand marble entrance hall, three colossal chandeliers
each made up of 27,000 crystals and 90 globes, plush
timber panelling, rich carpets and fabrics . . . the
casino oozed class. Even the two-up pit incorporated
joinery detail from old railway ticket counters.
opposition leader John Olsen, who stood with Mr Bannon
in the pit as he tossed the pennies at the opening
while MCs Bob Francis and Anne Wills watched, recalls
the night fondly.
mood was one of excitement, intrigue and curiosity;
a casino coming to Adelaide was a novel policy direction,
it certainly broke new ground," he said.
opening night I was in the two-up pit with John Bannon
and, as I recall, Bob Francis was the MC - it's the
only time I've been in a two-up pit. But like all
things new in entertainment, once the novelty wears
off unless it reinvents itself and maintains interest
it tends to fade, and I think that's what happened
with the casino.
state ended up with a casino, all attempting to attract
high rollers from overseas, and that started to change
the concept a bit; it changed, and that was a marketing
strategy of the operators."
took surprisingly little time for the glamour to tarnish
as the casino got down to the core business of separating
people from their money.
a week of the black-tie opening people were getting
in wearing hot pink tank tops, shorts, faded jeans,
T-shirts and sandshoes, with then-PR manager Wendy
Greiner - now Burnside mayor - saying the only exclusion
course, not everyone dressed down; but the Casino
Royale atmosphere was being watered down.
complaints started to emerge, such as from the man
who said he had lost $70,000 within weeks and was
now ruined. Problem gambling had arrived.
this didn't stop hordes of people passing through
its doors - 2.5 million visits in the first year.
Many were drawn simply by curiosity and the chance
to party from midday to 4am every day of the year
except Christmas Day and Good Friday.
the casino had a high-rollers' room it faced significant
hurdles in attracting "whales", the big-spending
gamblers who bet in sums most people could retire
casinos sprouting up in other Australian capitals
closer to the free-spending millionaires of Asia,
in particular, the casino needed to concentrate on
its home market.
meant luring punters to play two-up, craps, baccarat,
mini-dice, chocolate wheels, blackjack, roulette,
big-and-small plus Keno.
minumum bet of $1 for many games was attractive to
2000, thing stook a new turn, with the licence-holders
selling their initial $25 million investment to New
Zealand's SkyCity Entertainment Group for $185 million.
SkyCity operates a string of casinos and quickly embarked
on morphing its new Adelaide operation into its own
$13 million renovation which opened in 2001 made it
clear Ian Weiss' vision of the casino as an elegant
European model was long gone. The chandeliers were
put in storage, cars on swivelling pedestals were
on offer and flashing lights were everywhere. James
Bond was out: Las Vegas was in.
the operators also included corporate responsiblity
in the makeover which turned the "dowdy dowager
into a glitzy tart", as it was described at the
were clocks. A problem gambler program. Cheap meals.
Smoke-free areas. New furniture and carpet. Well-trained
and groomed staff. Clear signs. Tourism plans.
high-rollers' room remained decorated to a style worthy
of discreet chic, while the marvellous marble hall
with its huge dome remained a showpiece and a home
for entertainment events. The shift obviously worked.
Revenue for the year to June 30, 2001, was $83 million.
three years it had jackpotted to $110 million (including
$99 million from gambling) as punters voted with their
the year ending June 30, 2008, total revenue from
Sky City Adelaide was $118.2 million, including $103.5
million from gambling.
comprised $57.3 million from machines and $56.5 million
from tables for a total of $113.8 million, less GST
of $10.3 million, to reach the total of $103.5 million.
The balance of $14.7 million in overall revenue came
from food and beverages.
popular with punters, the casino has proved popular
with politicians, who quickly became addicted to the
river of gold it sent into state coffers.
recent years, SkyCity Adelaide has paid about $20
million a year in state tax, is the state's 10th largest
employer with about 1000 jobs, and has periodically
embarked on expensive upgrades creating more jobs,
tax and prosperity while offering entertainment and
cheap meals. A more recent shift to concentrate more
on gambling and less on nightclub entertainment saw
revenue soar 20 per cent in the year to February,
despite the impact of non-smoking laws.
year, the casino's owners cancelled a planned $30
million carpark upgrade and now are reviewing the
business, with the possibility of shifting to larger
premises with its own hotel. Whatever is decided,
it won't be a huge gamble.
of the premises, a casino licence is about as close
as you get to a licence to print money.